Star Arts by Tamar: Blog en-us (C) Star Arts by Tamar (Star Arts by Tamar) Mon, 14 Jun 2021 18:59:00 GMT Mon, 14 Jun 2021 18:59:00 GMT Star Arts by Tamar: Blog 120 80 Current Events 43: The Cathedral of Saint Sava/ Hram Svetog Save, Part 2        The secular creed of Communism had not eradicated Serbian Orthodoxy; rather, it was Communism that had been a temporary imposition.  There were large icons with heavily gilded backgrounds set on tables around the circumference of the ground floor, and there were people: business as usual during alterations.  Some of the icons were centuries old.  The pigments were vivid, as if even the oldest of them had been painted recently.  All of them looked valuable.  Candles burned on the tables and in niches around around the nave.  Several men and women were bowing and crossing themselves fervently and repeatedly, oblivious to the tourists and construction workers.  Two in particular caught my eye.  One was a girl clad in black jeans and a T-shirt.  Another was an older woman, dressed in more formal clothing.  Watching them surreptitiously, I became convinced that they were praying in front of the holy images for specific purposes.  There was a hint of desperation in their rapid ritual gestures.

                                                                                  The altar of Saint Sava, not yet concealed

       Our guide, Sofia, whom I judged to be in her thirties, spoke of the church as a fundamental institution in Serbian society.  There are other types of Orthodox Christianity, but Serbia's church is autonomous.  Its practices contribute to the uniqueness of Serbian identity, at least in the minds of Serbs.  In The Balkans, whatever differentiates one group from another assumes what seems, to an outsider, an exaggerated importance. 



]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Belgrade Cruise icons Saint Sava Serbia Serbian Orthodox Fri, 11 Jun 2021 22:30:00 GMT
Current Events 42: The Cathedral of Saint Sava/ Hram Svetog Save, Part 1        One might have thought that Tito's memorial would be Belgrade's premier tourist attraction.  That distinction, however, belonged to the Temple of  Saint Saba, the grandest Serbian Orthodox church in The Balkans.  Saint Sava, a medieval prince, had been the first Serbian archbishop.  After canonization, he became the national saint.  His importance increased a few centuries later, when the Ottomans punished rebel Serbian Christians by disinterring the saint's remains, burning them, and scattering the ashes.  The current church was erected on the reputed site of the desecration.  Begun in 1935, the church was a magnificent edifice in the Byzantine style, with white marble walls and a copper dome.  It was situated on an elevated plaza and, according to our guide, was visible from almost everywhere in the city.  It was also unfinished.

                                                                       The Temple of Saint Sava

       Our guide told us, with palpable pride, that the church had received no government funding.  It was financed solely from the contributions of the worshippers.  The series of wars that convulsed The Balkans during the Twentieth Century had slowed construction for decades.  The Nazis, never ones to forgo a chance to add to the humiliation of the people whom they subjugated, had parked their trucks and troop carriers inside the steel skeleton of the church.  In postwar Yugoslavia, the project languished.  It was not until the final years of Communism that official permission to resume construction was granted.

       The verdigris-crowned mass of Saint Sava's rose at the end of an avenue of trees.  Our guide admonished us to hasten towards the imposing edifice so that we could hear the church bells at noon.  At twelve precisely, fifty bells rang in an exultant pealing that must have been audible all over the city.  With the sound still reverberating in our ears, we entered the shadowy interior.  It was in the process of being decorated.  Polished granite columns supported a circle of arches in the center of the church.  The recesses above the columns were bare plaster , as were most of the visible surfaces.  Scaffolding and plastic sheeting covered parts of the walls, which soared upwards for several stories.  



       Clerestory windows around the base of the central dome allowed light to reach the floor where the altar stood.  The altar was rectangular, and covered in embossed silver and gilt panels.  The altar in an Orthodox church usually is concealed behind an iconostasis, a tall, ornate screen.  It would be hidden from the congregation's sight once the services began there.  Only the priests would be permitted to go behind the iconostasis.  I think that the faithful will have to wait a minimum of years to inaugurate Saint Sava's, as most of the mosaics for the walls still were missing.  There were no pews, but there would never be any.  Worshippers in Orthodox churches do not sit unless they are infirm.  The services can last for hours.  When the church is complete, thousands of people will be able to stand within its walls.  I should have liked to see it in all its splendor, but decided that I was privileged  to be able to view the enormous church as a work in progress.  There was even something ethereal about the plastic shrouding, as if an angel had trailed a wing over the concrete blocks.  

]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Belgrade Cathedral of Saint Sava Cruise iconostasis Serbian Orthodox Sat, 05 Jun 2021 00:45:00 GMT
Current Events 41: The Veterans  


 Radi, our guide,  was determined that her tour group should have contact with natives wherever we went. She had arranged for us to hear a local Serb express his feelings about Tito and “The Communism”. He met us outside Tito’s mausoleum. He was a grey-haired man in his seventies named Vasilije Kirkovič. He had spoken to groups led by Radi in the past, and was eager to do it again. Before he could do so, however, a florid, close-shaven man in a uniform, complete with a beret and a row of ribbons on his shirt, began talking to us. He was impressively inebriated, especially as it was not yet noon. Radi translated; the voluble stranger was from Slovenia. His former army comrades and he were having a reunion. They had traveled over five hundred kilometers to Belgrade together. They had come to honor Tito’s memory and, not incidentally, drink to it. He wanted us to know what a great hero Tito had been, and, with drunken persistence, ignored Radi’s attempts to thank him and move us away. When she did succeed, the veteran saluted us crisply, managing to remain vertical in the process.

Kirkovič decried the chaos that had replaced the regulated society in which he came of age. His plaint was not unlike that of blue-collar workers who had belonged to labor unions in The States, before the unions’ power waned. Without university educations, his wife and he had enjoyed job security and a decent standard of living. They had even been able to vacation abroad, owing to Tito’s canny manipulation of both Eastern and Western bloc diplomats. For Kirkovič, the advent of capitalism had fostered anxieties rather than opportunities. It did not matter to him that the workers’ paradise had been financed not only by foreign largesse, but also by loans that Yugoslavia could not repay. He missed Tito, and he was not alone.

V. Kirkovic described the glorious old days under Tito, with Radi in the background.


                                           The stranger from Slovenia insisted on giving us the benefit of his opinions.





]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) cruise Danube Serbia Tito veterans Yugoslavia Fri, 28 May 2021 01:54:54 GMT
Current Events 40: The House of Flowers           Nowhere was the Serbian nation's devotion to its former leader more evident than at Marshal Tito's tomb.  Tito was released from his earthly office in 1980.  His mausoleum was set in a sculpture garden atop a wooded, meticulously landscaped hill.  The lush greensward rose towards a rectangular edifice with glass walls.  It was two stories tall, with a partial third story.  A fountain played in the paved courtyard in front of it.  With its stark lines and many windows, the building resembled airport terminals of the same era.  Above the entrance was a black-and-white mural with a trio of soldiers on the left, holding rifles,and three more unarmed soldiers on the right.  This alluded to Tito's military prowess,  He had been a partisan commander during World War II.  He was a hero to the Serbs despite his having been born in Croatia to a Croatian father and a Slovenian mother.

            The mausoleum was called The House of Flowers, Kuca Cveca in Serbian.  It was part greenhouse, part tomb, and part museum.  There was nothing gloomy about it.  Josip Broz Tito's marble gravestone lay in the middle of an indoor garden.  The floors were matching white marble.  Tito's third, much younger, wife had joined him in repose in 2013.  Her remains lay under a slab smaller than that for the great man.  The glass roof admitted enough sunlight to illuminate the merest mote of dust, but there was none.  Everything was clean and polished, and looked brand new.  The foliage was as shiny as if every leaf were wiped daily, and that might well have been the case. People queued to pay their respects and then proceeded to glass-walled rooms filled with memorabilia.  There were photographs of Tito with so many dignitaries that I wondered if any head of state, before or since, had maintained relationships with so many premiers, presidents, kings, queens and celebrities. 

          Tito's ornately carved desk was on display, as were his dress uniforms and medals.  There was an entire room for Tito's collection of batons.  These were the short staffs that relay runners would hand to their teammates in the course of a race.  Socialist countries had promoted athletic events as wholesome leisure activities for proletarian youths, and there was a race every year on Tito's birthday.  The relay winner would present his baton as a gift to Yugoslavia's leader.  It became customary to give Tito decorative batons in tribute at any audience.  Some were carved and painted wood, others pewter or silver.  Some were surmounted with a Socialist star or another figure.  There were shaped like tools or scepters, or topped with flowers, fish, or even a miniature equestrian monument.  The variety was staggering.  The batons demonstrated how the limitations of a form can spur creativity.  Yet, as I gazed at the rows of batons in their neat rows, I had the irreverent thought that they represented a joke that had gone too far. 




]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) batons cruise Josip Broz mausoleum partisan Tito Yugoslavia Thu, 08 Apr 2021 23:09:02 GMT
Current Events 39: Cramped Quarters            Belgrade had the worst traffic that we had encountered.  The city's population was over a million and a half, and there seemed to be at least as many motor vehicles.  Sofia, our local guide, explained that Belgrade had buses, trams and trolleys, but no subway.  The congestion on the roads, however, was less problematic than parking.  There were simply not enough spaces for all of the cars.  Compact Skodas, Fiats, Opels and even the infamous Yugos clustered like an infestation of bright beetles on tree bark.  The tour guides, incidentally, were fond of telling Yugo jokes.  Alas, they were the same Yugo jokes that had been less than hilarious the first time that we heard them, from the ship's crew.  Here is a sample riddle:  Why does a Yugo have a rear-window defroster?  The answer is, to keep your hands warm while you push it.

Vehicles disguised as potted plants on a Belgrade street for pedestrians only

          The Belgraders had taken ingenious, if inadequate, measures to circumvent the laws of physics regarding parking.  There were iron-fenced enclosures in the middle of residential streets where cars were packed so tightly that I could not imagine maneuvering out of an assigned spot. Parking privileges were valuable and guarded zealously.  With a free space as rare as a unicorn, competition for one was a frequent source of discord among motorists.

          Sofia was candid about the prevalence of three generations sharing a family apartment.  Low wages and high unemployment prevented many young couples from establishing their own households.  Sofia, her husband and their children resided with her parents.  The grandparents cared for the children while their parents were at work.  The arrangement was stable, and typical for Belgrade. Gone was the era when the Yugoslavian Socialist Republic had guaranteed its citizens jobs, housing, schooling, medical care and social security.  

          In Serbia, the shift to private enterprise had been complicated by political strife rooted in ethnic rivalries.  There had been ruinous inflation and flagrant corruption.  Educated Serbians had become accustomed to seeking jobs abroad.  In the 1990's, the trickle of graduates leaving for Western Europe had become a flood.  Students whose grades placed them in the top third of their secondary schools did not have to pay for their university tuition.  Though they were graduated free of debt, many could not find the professional positions for which they had trained.  According to Sofia, they were reluctant to leave their homeland, but were lured away by the prospect of high incomes.  Many of Serbia's physicians had moved to Germany and The Netherlands.  This reduced the number of doctors providing state-guaranteed health care to critical levels.  And the country had lost its investment in many of its best students.  By comparison, the forty years of Tito's dictatorship actually were The Good Old Days.

Belgrade Kindergarten students on their way to the park



]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Belgrade cruise economic upheaval after Yugoslavian Communism multi-generational households parking Serbia traffic Fri, 18 Oct 2019 01:45:00 GMT
Current Events 38: The City of Dogs                     Belgrade is a city of dogs.  In Kalemegdan Park, they were everywhere we went.  Some were leashed, while others trotted, unrestrained, ahead of their masters.  Almost all of the dogs that were accompanied by their owners were purebred.  I saw mostly hunting and guard dogs, with more than a few exotic breeds represented.  And there were many stray dogs, as we saw when we went further into the park.  
          We paused at the mausoleum of Damat Ali Pasha, an Ottoman general and vizier who died in the early 1700's.  The mausoleum was preserved with greater care than the Serbs tended to lavish on traces of the Turkish occupation.  Our local guide, Sofia, answered our questions about the curious stone hut.  She preferred this subject only slightly to explaining how Belgrade authorities were coping with the population explosion of stray dogs.  Several lean but glossy examples approached us, sniffing for food.  They were quite tame but did not invite petting.  Most were black with white chests, cocked ears and long legs; yes, even the dogs were tall.

          A decade of war had produced generations of homeless canines.  Some humane organizations were feeding the dogs regularly, after removing them from the streets temporarily in order to have veterinarians neuter or spay them.  A few years ago, packs of feral dogs had been such a nuisance that Belgrade's administrators had implemented a policy of exterminating the strays.  There had been an international outcry at the brutality of the killings.  Since then, private citizens had opened shelters and dog adoption centers to ease the problem.  Some of these shelters still contained hundreds of dogs. 




]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Belgrade cruise dogs Ottoman mausoleum shelters strays Thu, 10 Oct 2019 23:30:00 GMT
Current Events 37: The Victor           Exploring beautiful Kalemegdan Park in its entirety would have taken all of the time that our tour had allotted for Belgrade.  In addition to the Upper and Lower Towns of the fortress, the park contained a zoo, an art gallery, a Roman well, a clock tower, medieval ruins and modern monuments.  Stone staircases connected the terraces, where shade trees lined sinuous paved paths, with fountains and sculptures around every turn.  Dominating all was the statue of The Victor, rising about fifteen meters above the Upper Town.

          The Victor, or Pobednik in Serbian, had been erected in the 1920's to commemorate the Serbs' final defeat of the Turks.  The Victor is a bronze male figure on a column.  In one hand, he holds a sword with its tip planted in the ground.  On his other hand he carries a falcon.  And he is nude, presenting his genitalia to one side of the city while displaying his muscular buttocks to a different district.  The Victor's eminent masculinity had scandalized the Belgrade bourgeoisie.  The statue was supposed to be part of a much more elaborate civic installation, one that had been too expensive for the impoverished Kingdom of Serbia to have completed between the World Wars.  Torn between patriotism and prudery, the citizenry agreed to the present conspicuous placement of the statue on its column.  Ever since, the Victor, clothed only in verdigris, has become the symbol of Belgrade. 



]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Belgrade cruise Kalemegdan Pobednik Serbia The Victor Thu, 03 Oct 2019 22:45:00 GMT
Current Events 36: The Fortress of Kalemegdan, Belgrade              No one is certain how much of the Kalemegdan fortress is below ground, as the network of tunnels has not been mapped completely.  The walls and towers that do show are most impressive.  The bulwarks and cannons seemed even more massive than those at Petrovaradin.  The doors were clad in iron, affixed with symmetrical rows of crude bolts.  They added to the citadel's forbidding aspect.  Part of the fortress had been turned into a military museum.  Outside it stood a double row of tanks and howitzers from World War II.  The Serbs had resisted the Axis powers, and the Nazis had vented their spleen by having the Luftwaffe bomb Belgrade.

          Kalemegdan is a place for play as well as remembrance.  Near the tanks were several life-sized plastic models of dinosaurs to divert children taken on outings to the fortress.  There were a Triceratops and a Brontosaurus-like herbivore, as well as the Tyrannosaurus Rex that is de rigueur in any Jurassic grouping.  The models were predominantly green, not unlike the olive drab paint on the tanks and ordnance.  




]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Belgrade cruise fortress Kalemegdan military museum park Thu, 26 Sep 2019 21:45:00 GMT
Current Events 35: Entering the White City              We docked at Belgrade after cruising overnight from Novi Sad.  We were in Serbia's capital for the hottest day of our journey until that point.  As it was the last day of September, we should have called it Indian Summer, before our vocabularies were purged of inaccurate terms for the Western Hemisphere's indigenes.  The crew and guides all were in buoyant moods, owing to the unusual warmth.  I asked a guide if there were a special name for the weather.  I was told that it is called Saint Michael's Summer.  As Winters in Eastern Europe are long and bitter, the brief reprise of Summer was cause for celebration.

          Belgrade began as a fortress on a cliff overlooking the confluence of the Danube and the Sava Rivers.  The rivers were broader and the ridges higher than the corresponding features in other sites on The Lower Danube that we had seen.  In order that we might appreciate Belgrade's felicitous geography, we were taken to Kalemegdan.  Kalemegdan is the Turkish fortress on the coveted hill, over a hundred meters above the water.     

The entrance to Kalemegdan

          The Celts had been forced to cede the hill fort to the Romans.  The Huns and the Avars fought for it.  It had passed through Byzantine and Hungarian hands until it was conquered by the Ottomans.  The Turks kept it for over two centuries, despite periodic Slavic insurrections.  

    Roman ruins in Kalemegdan Park

          The citadel is in extensive, terraced Kalemegdan Park, Belgrade's premier monument and recreation area.  We had a superb view of the city from the wide stone ramparts.  Its spires, office towers and riparian beaches shone in the morning light, meriting the Serbian name of Beograd, or White City.  Where the rivers met was a verdant island, named Great War Island.  As Belgrade has been the site of more than a hundred battles, one would be hard pressed to identify the island's eponymous conflict from the historical record.  Now Great War Island is a Nature preserve.  Draw hope for the future from that if you can. 

]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Belgrade cruise Danube fortress Kalemegdan Sava River White City Fri, 20 Sep 2019 02:15:00 GMT
Current Events 34: Vegetarians at Salas 137           I suppose that HL and I could not have been the first vegetarians to dine at Salas 137, but there cannot have been many.  After our tour guide conferred with a burly, white-shirted manager, HL and I were given a grain-based dish.  It was palatable, if quite heavy.  By the time that we received our special entrees, we had partaken of the salads and other vegetable dishes that had been served to everyone.  We had little appetite for our main course.  And I was noticing that the rakiya was not burning my lips so much anymore.  Perhaps the local firewater had scarred them by then.  In fact, I was finding the rakiya increasingly agreeable.

          Salas 137's house specialty was roasted beef on skewers.  Our table companions pronounced the beef tough.  Though they devoured everything else, our fellow travelers left enough meat on the platters to feed a raiding party.  Being among the Serbs filled my mind with bellicose imagery.  There was something ferocious about them, as if the waiters' enthusiastic welcomes could change to war cries in an instant.

            Feeling the need for a modicum of postprandial exercise, we strolled through the rooms of rustic antiques.  There were tiled heating stoves in almost every corner, as well as glass-fronted china cabinets, oil lanterns, dry sinks and obsolete appliances.  In one room were shelves that held parlor radios, each the size of a piece of luggage.  The light from the old electrical fixtures was as dim and yellowish as it must have been eighty years ago.  Despite that, HL lifted his camera gamely to record some of the details of our surroundings.



]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) antiques cruise farmhouse Serbian cuisine vegetarians Thu, 12 Sep 2019 23:45:00 GMT
Current Events 33: Salas 137            From Novi Sad,  the tour group traveled by bus to a traditional Serbian restaurant for dinner.  During the ride, there was still adequate daylight for us to see the harvested fields and orchards.  As happened often in Eastern Europe, we drove into the past when we left the city.  When we reached Salas 137, the illusion of moving backwards in time was complete.

          We were conducted down a concrete path that led between several long, low farm buildings.  Cats, dogs and chickens ambled past us on their obscure errands, unperturbed by a few busloads of strangers.  Outmoded agricultural implements lay beside the path.  Wooden butter churns and troughs stood next to the door of the restaurant.  It was the newest structure on the property.  With its high, pitched roof and exposed beams, it resembled a barn.

          The restaurant was a family enterprise.  The owners had bought it from some farmers.  They continued to raise some of the produce and animals that they served.  The rest came from local sources.  The original farmhouse and some the outbuildings had been restored so that they looked as they might have in the 1930's.  Salas 137 was also an inn, with thirteen guest rooms, all with old-fashioned furnishings.  It was a popular place for a weekend in the countryside.  There was a stable full of handsome horses, too.  The premises could be rented for parties, meetings and receptions.  The horses could be harnessed to wooden wagons for those who fancied being photographed seated in authentically agrarian discomfort.   

          Diners from Novi Sad as well as tourists filled the spacious restaurant.   The cuisine was traditional Serbian, meaning mostly meat heaped on platters for all at the table to share.  Wine and rakiya flowed.  A band purported to be comprised of Gypsy musicians entertained us.  Serbia has a sizable Roma minority, but the musicians were no swarthier nor shorter than other Serbians.  The platinum hair of the girl vocalist may have owed more to artifice than to heredity, but she, too, was tall and robust.  I assumed that the lyrics of the folk songs told of love and longing, and battles won and lost.  For all I knew, however, the singer could have been hurling imprecations at us foreigners and our country of origin.  





]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) country inn and restaurant cruise musicians Novi Sad Roma Thu, 05 Sep 2019 23:15:00 GMT
Current Events 32: Beneath Petrovaradin           After the guides from our ship gave us our tickets, they delivered us into the care of an official Petrovaradin tour guide.  We surmised that the tour company was loath to assume direct responsibility for our safety in the tunnels.  The Austrians had enlarged the conquered Ottoman stronghold so that, by the end of the Eighteenth Century, it enclosed more than a hundred hectares within its brick and stone ramparts.  There were sixteen gates and emplacements for 400 cannons.  Even more remarkable than the thickness of the walls or the size of the area within them were the intricate underground defenses. There were four levels and sixteen kilometers of tunnels beneath the citadel.

          Any force that managed to mine its way under the walls would be trapped where the Austrian soldiers could lie in wait.  Sappers would have had no easy time getting near the keep, but it had been a possibility.  We trailed close behind our guide, as grateful for his flashlight as his familiarity with our route.  Some sections could be reached only with ropes that dropped through narrow rectangular shafts.  We were restricted to those levels accessible by stairs, and that was fine.  It was enough of a challenge to to avoid a misstep on the uneven floor.  It had required months for soldiers to be trained in the intricacies of this dank brick honeycomb. We passed chambers not only for munitions but also for subterranean troop quarters, complete with kitchens.  Soldiers would be billeted there regularly.  At intervals along these passages, there were vents that admitted a little daylight and would have allowed the smoke from candles, torches and cooking fires to escape.  

          We emerged from the depths of Petrovaradin footsore and thirsty.  We had lemonade at a cafe on a broad twrrace overlooking the river.  Serbian lemonade is not sweetened, and my palate never adjusted to its sourness.  The drink did reinforce my impression that the Serbs were tough folk.  We sat at a table shaded by umbrellas to admire the view of the city.  The hazy Sun hung over the Fruska Gora Mountains and silvered the surface of the water. 







]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) cruise Novi Sad Petrovaradin Serbia subterranean troop quarters Thu, 29 Aug 2019 23:45:00 GMT
Current Events 31: The Eyes of Petrovaradin            We were given a choice of activities in Novi Sad, and we elected to ascend the hill to Petrovaradin.  Two of the guides, Irina and Stefan, conducted those who wished to tour the fortress through a shabby section of town.  The guides said that in Novi Sad were many people who were unemployed and displaced by war.  They had crowded into the houses in a formerly decent section.  The apartments in the partitioned two- and three-story townhouses had been intended for military veterans, who paid a subsidized rent.  No one was visible on the narrow, cracked sidewalks or in the windows.  The guides hurried us through the streets to the base of the hill.

          A staircase led us to the site of the fortress.  There were few in our party.  Walking through subterranean passages is not to everyone's taste, though I had been looking forward to it ever since I had learned of Petrovaradin's existence.  The fortress had been a formidable element in the Habsburg defense on the Lower Danube.  Before the preserved fortress rose on the site, there had been a series of outposts there, including a Roman fort, a medieval monastery, and a Turkish bastion.  There was archaeological evidence that people had appreciated the strategic advantages of the location since the Neolithic era. 

          Near the entrance was a landmark clock tower, known as the Drunken Clock.  Its long hand marked the hours instead of the minutes, while the short one marked the minutes.  There are several explanations for this, all fascinating to those who advanced them.  Some claimed that the anomaly aided fishermen who had to read the clock's face from a distance.  The clock was reputed to run more slowly in cold than in warm weather.   

          Near the Drunken Clock was a surrealist installation of a giant human face, with two painted eyes suspended above a metal nose made of angled metal, lacquered bright red.  It might have been paying homage to the famous optometrist's billboard in The Great Gatsby.  Or it may have been just one of many local artworks.  Novi Sad is the cultural capital of Serbia.  Since 2000, it has attracted an international audience to the EXIT music festival, held every Summer at Petrovaradin.  The festival had its genesis in the Balkan students' protest movements.  



]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) cruise cultural capital of Serbia Drunken Clock fortress tour Novi Sad Petrovaradin Thu, 22 Aug 2019 21:30:00 GMT
Current Events 30: The Synagogue in Novi Sad           Thanks to our guide Radi's accurate directions, we were able to find the main synagogue in Novi Sad.  In 1905, the Jewish community erected a fine synagogue in the Secessionist style, of ocher brickwork accented with white.  Novi Sad was part of Hungary at the time.  The congregation was comprised of Hungarian-speaking, Neolog Jews.  

        There had been four earlier synagogues on the same spot on Jevrejska, or Jewish, Street.  The latest one had a central cupola and a pair of towers topped by octagonal domes flanking the entrance.  Carved above the portal was a Biblical quotation in Hebrew, which we translated as This is a house of prayer for all the nations.  To one side stood a Jewish school, and on the other an administrative building.  Both were built in the same handsome style as the synagogue.

          Until 1941, Novi Sad's 4,000 Jews had enjoyed the same rights as other Serbian citizens.  Those who were not massacred by Hungarian Fascist militia were deported to death camps when the Nazis occupied Serbia.  About 1,000 Jews survived.  As became the pattern in Eastern Europe, many of those survivors moved to Israel after 1948.

          So there are too few Jews remaining in Novi Sad to maintain the synagogue complex.  The school became a ballet academy.  The municipal government reopened the synagogue as a concert venue, after leasing it from the dwindling Jewish community.  We had hoped to look inside the building, but it was locked.  Later, I learned that it housed a congregation only on the major holidays.  The street in front of it was under construction, and the synagogue probably was being renovated.  Or there was simply no one there to admit us.  








]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) cruise Nazi occupation Novi Sad Serbia synagogue Fri, 16 Aug 2019 02:30:00 GMT
Current Events 29: Novi Sad, Past and Future Cultural Capital           From the park we progressed to Novi Sad's historic main street.  It was closed to vehicular traffic.  The dock was at the far end of the wide street, so our guide bade us farewell, confident that we could find our way back to the ship and avoid getting stranded in Serbia.  A fin-de-siecle Roman Catholic church with a clock tower dominated the first part part of the thoroughfare.  The Name of Mary Church is a reminder of the former Austrian dominance, as most Serbs are of the Orthodox rather than Roman Catholic persuasion.

Novi Sad's Name of Mary Church, with its Zsolnay tiled roof

           There were handsome civic edifices, apartment blocks, cafes and boutiques.  Parked in front of them were candy wagons heaped with garish confections unlike any that I had seen.  Statuesque young women ushered their children past us, the women's high heels clicking on the well-swept stone pavement.  Vendors with rafts of bright Mylar balloons were doing a brisk business.  So, too, were the shops with marquees bearing the familiar names of international merchants of luxury goods, belying reports of Serbia's economic weakness.

           Whatever was not new looked as if it had been sandblasted or repainted.  Novi Sad had won a competition to be designated a European Cultural Capital.  Banners at regular intervals along the main street attested to the fact that it would assume the title in 2021. A campaign of renovation and restoration doubtless had preceded Novi Sad's entry into the contest.  





]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) cruise Novi Sad Serbia The Name of Mary Church Thu, 08 Aug 2019 22:45:00 GMT
Current Events 28: The Bridges of Novi Sad

            In Danube Park, Novi Sad

          Our guide Milena directed us through Danube Park as she explained the history of Novi Sad.  We passed smiling, tall Serbian preschoolers trailing after their tall teachers.  A Habsburg fortress had been erected on the ruins of earlier fortifications, on a hill above a narrow bend in the river.  The formidable Austrian Empress Maria Theresa had decreed that a city should be developed on the bank opposite the fortress.  It was supposed to be a garden spot, a civilized complement to the bastion.  Novi Sad means New Garden, or Park.  It became the intellectual and artistic center of the region.  Members of so many ethnic groups within the Austro-Hungarian Empire settled there that it earned the sobriquet of Europe in Miniature.  

          In 1999, NATO bombers attacked Novi Sad, ostensible to force the Serbian militias out of Kosovo.  And thereby hangs another sad and sanguinary tale, one outside the scope of this narrative.  Novi Sad was bombarded for three months.  Whole neighborhoods were destroyed, as well as oil refineries and all of the bridges across The Danube.  Families were separated.  There was no electrical power.  Water and food supplies dwindled.  The suffering was such that the cool, slightly pedantic Milena's voice trembled as she described that period.

          To date, not all of Novi Sad's bridges have been replaced.  Close to the dock, metal stanchions twisted above the water's surface, as stark as any memorial sculpture.  There was, incidentally, at least one monument to the Jewish and Serbian victims of the Hungarians Fascists who raided Novi Sad in 1942.  We passed it on our way to the Danube Park.  Even from a distance, its import was unmistakable.  The thin, dark grey metal figures of a man, a woman and a child stood on a pedestal with Hebrew as well as Serbian writing identifying the subject.

Memorial to Victims of the Sho'ah (Holocaust), Novi Sad, SerbiaMemorial to Victims of the Sho'ah (Holocaust), Novi Sad, Serbia



]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) cruise Danube Park NATO bombing 1999 Novi Sad Serbia Thu, 01 Aug 2019 05:00:00 GMT
Current Events 27: Novi Sad, Serbia           The ship sailed while we slept and we awoke in Serbia, we passengers having been spared the attentions of border control agents.  We had docked in Novi Sad, Serbia's second largest city and the capital of Vojvodina, a northern province classified as semi-autonomous.  Despite my curiosity, I refrained from delving into the intricacies of the place's political status.  Any information elicited from such inquiries is subject to rapid obsolescence in The Balkans.  No matter; the Sun was shining on The Danube and the bridges spanning it. 

The Bridges of Novi Sad

          Our guide for our morning walking tour was Milena, a tall, slender young woman.  That is a poor description, because Serbs are very tall people.  They are also intensely proud, and more than little defensive.  Serbs were cast as the villains in the Domestic War, though I believe that there was blame enough for all of the combatants to share.  The Serbs had dominated Yugoslavia, and many still regard Tito's brand of Communism as superior to any subsequent regime.  Thanks to Tito's deft diplomatic maneuvering, Yugoslavia had received copious foreign aid from both the Soviets and the Western powers.  For four decades, the people had enjoyed secure jobs, medical coverage, free university tuition and vacations abroad.  Western consumer goods had been available, too.  As in other Communist countries, ethnic and religious differences officially were subsumed under the broader identity of the Yugoslavian proletarian paradise.  Soviet troops never occupied Yugoslavia, and the Communist yoke had not weighed heavily on the Serbs' necks.  


]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Communism cruise former Yugoslavia Novi Sad Serbia Tito Fri, 26 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT
Current Events 26: A Rally in Vukovar           The liveliest area of Vukovar was a paved strip near the Vuka River channel.  There we encountered a gaggle of several dozen young people.  The paucity of facial hair on the boys inclined me to think that they were secondary school rather than university students.  Most sat in rows of folding chairs, facing a space serving as an impromptu stage.  A banner proclaimed that the gathering had been organized by the YPGD, or Youth Peace Group (of the) Danube.  Its Croatian name also was on the banner.  Tacked to sheets of plywood propped up on the sidewalk were squares of white paper covered with bright, cartoonish images.  They might have been set decorations for the skit that a few of the youths were performing.  The theme seemed to be apocalypse, graphic projections of the consequences of failing to promote peace.

           The language barrier rendered the proceedings somewhat obscure.  One of the actors held a printed sign bearing the word Police.  The word is similar, though not the same, in Croatian.  The young activists must have intended their presentation for an international audience, via social media.  More than one of their peers was holding a cell phone aloft in order to record the skit.  We guessed that it was a protest against police brutality or some official policy.  Though the local Establishment is Croatian, there is still a sizable Serbian minority, constituting approximately a third of the population.  And there is still, alas, ethnic friction.  The youth of the town were right to be apprehensive about a repetition of the Domestic War (sic).  They are the ones who will be in the new militias if the old, obdurate hatred flares into violence again.  And their homes will be back on the front lines in bullet-riddled Vukovar.



]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) cruise ethnic hatred peace rally Vukovar youth activists Thu, 18 Jul 2019 23:45:00 GMT
Current Events 25: Vukovar, its Swings and Arrows            It was early evening when HL and I decided to stroll through Vukovar.  Adjacent to the dock was a lawn where what appeared to be an array of stone windows leaned on one another to form a line.  A closer inspector revealed that it was a sculpture of gravestones.  We surmised that it was a war memorial.  A young man in a nearby souvenir stand knew enough English to confirm our guess.  Few from the ship had cared to walk around Vukovar, so the vendor had few prospective customers.  He was unperturbed by my question.  War memorials were more ordinary than fire hydrants in this part of the world.  On the other side of the lawn was some playground equipment and, beyond it, a small school.  It was hours since the pupils had been dismissed, and a boy and a girl had the swings all to themselves.  A man who was probably their father sat on a bench, smoking and watching the children play.  

            The low, aurous light was perfect for photography.  HL took pictures of forlorn hotels, the solitary tower of a pulverized edifice, and a modern concrete plaza where almost all of the windows were dark and empty, all within a few blocks of the monument.  We continued into the town, to the renovated main area.  The paint was fresh, and the glass in the shop fronts was new, but there were few pedestrians and even fewer cars.  It was so quiet that I was relieved to spot a young couple pushing a toddler in a stroller.  Vukovar was like a town in a fairy tale that had been placed under an enchantment, and all within it were just beginning to stir.  Or it could have been a city ravaged by dragons, and its inhabitants still were not certain that all of the monsters were gone. 

]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Croatia cruise Vukovar war memorial Thu, 11 Jul 2019 22:30:00 GMT
Current Events 24: Vukovar, Croatia             


           We met our ship at Vukovar, Croatia's largest river port, where The Danube joins The Vuka.  Osijek bore signs of shelling, but Vukovar looked as if it had been deliberately scheduled for demolition by artillery.  It was in such a state of disrepair that it was hard to tell if it were being rebuilt or razed.  There were bulldozers parked behind wire fencing beside some of the ubiquitous piles of rubble.  The name of the town had become synonymous with the carnage of the Yugoslav wars.  Not only had its buildings been destroyed, but also hundreds of its citizens had been massacred after they were captured by Serbian forces.  Those who were alleged to have ordered the killings were tried for war crimes, though that was not an uncommon distinction after the drawing of uneasy new national borders.  Many a soldier in the seven countries created by the dismemberment of Yugoslavia might have inserted "war criminal" as a line in his resume.    

]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) civil war Croatia cruise massacre Serbia shelling Vukovar Thu, 04 Jul 2019 21:45:00 GMT
Current Events 23: Lunch with Rejna, continued.               Seated at the head of the table, Rejna described her labors.  She was quite an industrious young woman.  Earning one's livelihood in rural Croatia requires both energy and ingenuity.  In addition to feeding tourists, Rejna worked as a caretaker for the elderly, tended a market stall, and helped her parents on their farm.  Her father was completely disabled, having been seriously wounded during the Croatian-Serbian war.  Her voice wavered and her eyes moistened as she recounted how her father had advised her not to harbor hatred against their former enemies, as her hatred would damage Rejna more than anyone else.  It was not just the brandy, or the fine local wine that complemented the food, that made Rejna's listeners teary, too.   

          Once, I might have scorned someone like Rejna, the descendant of Croatian smallholders, as a hereditary anti-Semite.  Even if her grandparents did not collaborate with the Nazis, her ancestors surely could have participated in pogroms.  In her apron, with her bland features and thickset figure, she could have been a Slavic peasant from Central Casting.  Having broken bread with her, however, I could overcome my prejudice.   I reaffirmed my resolve to encounter every stranger as an individual.  When our guide and our bus driver arrived to collect us, it did not seem that we had been with Rejna for hours, but it was true.  Our host embraced each of us when we took our leave.  HL took a picture of Rejna standing in her aromatic, aubergine-colored kitchen.  I shall not need to refer to it in order to remember Rejna. 

Rejna's neighbors waved to us as we left Bileje.




]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) anti-Semitism Croatian-Serbian war cruise hospitality Fri, 28 Jun 2019 02:45:00 GMT
Current Events 22: Lunch with Rejna              The tour company touted a home-hosted (sic)  lunch as a special feature.  HL and I had been apprehensive about this lunch from the first moment that we had read about it in the itinerary.  We were reluctant to inflict our vegetarian requirements on a stranger who cooked for tourists in her home.   We had told Radi the Guide that it might be best if HL and I skipped that part of the program.  Radi assured us, however, that one of the hosts prepared meals routinely for those with special diets.  Our busload of forty was subdivided into five groups of eight.  The bus brought us into a village with a few streets of neat stucco houses, most white, others painted pale lavender, yellow, or green.  All of the houses backed onto spacious gardens, with fruit trees and grape arbors.   

            The village was name Bileje (Bi-LAY-eh), which we were told means "vegetable" in Croatian.  With Miri, Paige, and a few others of our fellow passengers, we  were deposoited at a house where a sturdy blond woman in an apron welcomed us.  She introduced herself as Rejna (RAY-nah).  I judged her to be in her thirties.  Her smooth, pale hair was cut to chin length.  She ushered us into the dining room of her spotless, modern dwelling.  While serving us homemade cherry and walnut brandies, or rakiya, she described renovating and enlarging her house with the help of her boyfriend.  Here, I must inject a word of praise for the custom of preceding a meal with a shot or two of the local equivalent of rakiya in each of the five countries that we visited during the cruise.  It is a great solvent for cultural barriers.

Rejna in her home village of Bileje, Croatia

            Everyone peppered Rejna with questions about her work and her family.  She apologized for her limited proficiency in English, but she managed to express herself fluently.  She answered all queries amiably while serving platters of food.  Single-handedly, she produced a feast.  She did so five or six times per week during the tourist season, which lasted six months at most.  She had been obliged to procure a license to operate a Bed-and-Breakfast inn in order to be a caterer, even though she did not lodge guests.  Some of her neighbors did run guest houses, patronized in the main by Croats from cities like Osijek who fancied a weekend in the country.  All of the fruits and vegetables for Rejna's dishes came from her garden, or from her relatives' nearby farms.  The meat, I assumed, was from animals raised in their pastures.  The main course was a Croatian specialty, a meat loaf made from beef, pork, and bacon.  The resourceful Rejna gave HL and me a version made with soy.


]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Croatian village lunch cruise homemade brandy rakiya vegetarians Fri, 21 Jun 2019 02:45:00 GMT
Current Events 21: No Lack of Monuments (After the Children's Concert in Osijek)              I was touched by the children's buoyant mood, though I should not have minded in the slightest if the stop at the school had been omitted.  The pupils and their teachers seemed happy to have had visitors from The States.  The adolescents in the upper forms maintained their sang-froid , but the younger students trailed us to the bus, waving and calling out their English phrases of farewell.  I thought it a pity that I could not tell them to look closely at me, so that they could relate to their grandchildren that they had seen a Jew.  The Nazis and the Ustase, their Croatian henchmen, had left few Jews alive in Croatia.  Almost all of the Jewish remnant and their descendants lived in distant Zagreb, the capital of Croatia. 

Memorial to Jews Murdered by the Nazis, in the Courtyard of the Franciscan Monastery outside Osijek


Franciscan Monastery, Osijek


Red Fico:  Croatian Fiat on Serbian Tank, Monument to the Domestic (Civil) War, Osijek





]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Croatia Croatian-Serbian Civil War cruise Nazi genocide Osijek Red Fico Fri, 14 Jun 2019 02:45:00 GMT
Current Events 20: A Concert in Osijek             One of our destinations in Osijek was an elementary school, where the students regaled us with a concert.  The tour company's owners fund a charitable foundation that gave the school a grant, and the tykes were going to sing, and play, for their supper.  We guests filed into a low concrete building decorated with metal panels in primary colors.  There were tempera paintings on the walls.  We were conducted to rows of folding chairs in an assembly room.  Children and their teachers awaited us.  We might have been in an elementary school anywhere in The States, had not every face been pale, every outfit neat, and every back straight.  The girls and boys were as rosy as if they all had just been scrubbed.  The teachers' glances silenced a communal murmur of excitement, and then the program began.

            Almost all of my fellow passengers were grandparents, and not a few had been teachers.  Some had mentioned volunteering with organizations that benefit the young of the species.  Paige was among them, as I learned when we had introduced ourselves on our first night on board the ship.  That morning's juvenile choral and instrumental performance might have been the highlight of the trip for them.  I was not as appreciative.  I listened to some of the selections but nodded off during others.  The children sang and played adequately, and a few soloists demonstrated undeniable talent. Rising early to submit to the stare of disgruntled Hungarian border agents, plus riding on a bus, had caused my somnolence.  And I had caught a cold.  It might have been the decongestant tablet that I had taken to control my symptoms that tipped me into sleep.  



]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Croatia cruise Osijek school concert Fri, 07 Jun 2019 02:45:00 GMT
Current Events 19: Osijek, Croatia                         We docked in Batina, a tiny river port in eastern Croatia.  Eastern Croatia is the section that does not include the Dalmatian Coast on the Adriatic Sea.  We were far inland, in a flat, agricultural area.  After breakfast on the ship, we were taken by bus to Osijek (OH-see-yek), a city on the Drava River.  As The Drava was too small a river to accommodate the ship, we would take buses to meet our craft in Vukovar, a larger Danube port, later in the day.  First, we disembarked and rode through about twenty kilometers of fields and farmhouses that bore signs of neglect, as if the timelessly bucolic landscapes of children's story books had been deserted by most of their human and animal denizens.  The decrepitude predated the Croatian-Serbian wars in The Nineties.  Farmers and agricultural laborers had been assigned to work in factories subsidized by the Yugoslavian Communist regime.   After The Communism, some of the families that had been uprooted from the land were able to reclaim it and resume farming.  Others remained in the drab workers' housing blocks near the now-shuttered industrial installations, with little income and few prospects.  

The University in Osijek        

                  Osijek, with a population of more than 100,000, has a university, museums, concert halls, a cathedral and the usual cultural accoutrements of a European city.  Osijek had been shelled in the civil war.  There was evidence of the physical damage as we reached the outskirts of the town.  I shall not attempt here to unravel the tangled skein of grievances behind the ethnic conflicts in the former Yugoslavia.  I doubt that anyone could make sense of those sanguinary convulsions that beggared fledgling nations while depriving thehir citizenry of life and limb.  The Serbian minority in eastern Croatia fared so badly that some Croatian military commanders were tried as war criminals when the smoke, literally, had cleared.  The reverse happened in neighboring regions, where Serbian leaders were the ones eventually condemned for war crimes.  No one emerged unsullied from that fighting, as far as I could discern.  More than a thousand people were killed in Osijek alone.  Many more were wounded, and the uncleared minefields continue to claim an occasional victim.  There are roadside signs warning people away from fields where the lethal devices may be.  Though many undetonated mines have been removed, there are enough left to have rendered many hectares of arable land unfit for cultivation. 



]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Batina Croatia Croatian-Serbian civil war cruise Drava River Osijek Fri, 31 May 2019 02:45:00 GMT
Current Events 18: Pajama Party on The Danube           I wished that we could spend another week in Budapest, but we had to return to the ship on our second night there to begin sailing south on The Danube.   The crew imparted, reluctantly, that we would have to rise from bed whenever the ship reached the Hungarian border at Mohacs.  There, Hungarian border control agents would board the ship, and check our passport pictures against our bleary countenances.  It made no sense to me, because we were leaving the country.   No one had seemed to care when HL and I had sallied forth from the Budapest airport to the taxi queue  without a nod to Customs. 

            I asked a crew member what he thought  the reason for the "face check" might be.  They want to show their power, the young man grumbled, and his colleague concurred.  Almost all of the crew members were from The Balkans,  rather than Hungary.  In fact, there were only two Hungarians in the crew, the head chef and the captain.  They were so esteemed, or so essential to the crew's welfare, that they escaped the opprobrium generated by their Magyar countrymen.  

View of the Buda side of The Danube, Budapest

            So it was that the pajama party on the M/S Aria commenced before 5 AM.  The passengers, clad in robes and slippers, shuffled to the boarding area of the ship as their hallway numbers were announced over the public address system.  The passengers were not a handsome lot by day, and their having been roused from bed did little to improve their appearance.  Yet I gave them credit for their cheerful dispositions, given the hour.  They were obedient, as North Americans tend to be in encounters with officialdom.  

            The unsmiling Hungarian border agents wore black uniforms and carried sidearms.  They gave my passport, and me, a desultory glance.  I was not inclined to make conversation.  The whole procedure seemed pointless, surreal;  there in Eastern Europe, it was impossible for me to resist calling it Kafkaesque.  I looked outside and saw the lit windows of the Mohacs inspection station on the other side of the river.  Otherwise, the night was black, with no lights in the surrounding countryside or on the waterway.  The ship was docked at Mohacs for long enough for me to fall asleep back in my cabin.  When I awoke, we were in Croatia.  



]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Budapest cruise customs agents face check Kafkaesque Mohacs pajama party Fri, 24 May 2019 02:45:00 GMT
Current Events 17: The Alexandra Bookstore              I have to thank our guide from the boat, Radi,  for suggesting that we repair to the Alexandra Bookstore after the Opera House.  We had to ask for directions a few times, but succeeded in finding the tri-level bookstore.  It was a well-stocked, modern emporium, with books in English as well as Hungarian, on the two lowest floors.  On the third, however, was its glory: a cafe with a vaulted, painted ceiling that was a product of the same artistic sensibility as the Opera House.  It was Karolyi Lotz who executed the frescoes in 1884, for what was then the ballroom of a casino.  Lotz is famous as the artist who decorated the immense Hungarian Parliament.  There was a black-lacquered grand piano in the middle of the cafe, and the inescapable glass cases full of pastries and cakes beside the entrance.  We succumbed to temptation, adding a couple of extravagant desserts to our coffee order.  We did not mind paying rent, in the form of the prices for the sweets, to luxuriate in that lovely room. 

The treacherous pastry case


HL and I at the Alexandra Cafe, Budapest



]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Alexandra Bookstore Budapest cruise frescoes Karolyi Lotz Fri, 17 May 2019 02:45:00 GMT
Current Events 16: The Hungarian State Opera House             While the guide explained the history and design of the three-tiered Opera House, he had us sit in the plush chairs in the orchestra section.  The theater's acoustics are considered to be among the best in the world.  There was a crew on the stage, busily changing the set and providing a serendipitous visual accompaniment to the guide's speech.   Afterwards, we sat on the marble steps in the foyer and listened to an abbreviated recital.  A shaven-headed baritone, clad in a black and gold uniform, performed two comic arias from Don Juan.  As he sang, he brandished a book of photographs of hundreds of women.  They were meant to represent Don Juan's amorous conquests.  He had a superlative voice, as one would expect, nay, demand in such a setting. 


]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) baritone Budapest cruise Don Juan Hungarian State Opera House Fri, 10 May 2019 02:45:00 GMT
Current Events 15: A Walk on Andrassy Avenue            We consulted a map before setting out for the Opera House, a landmark that we had glimpsed during the previous day's city bus tour.  We strolled on Andrassy Avenue, a wide, tree-shaded thoroughfare modeled on the Avenue des Champs-Elysees in Paris, past elegant shops, neo-Renaissance mansions, and sidewalk cafes.  Youths on skateboards slipped past chic pedestrians walking their pedigreed dogs.  The afternoon was warm, and Summer flowers still overflowed from sidewalk planters.  We window-shopped, admiring the displays, until we caught sight of the Hungarian State Opera House.  The English-language tour had just left the lobby.  We begged the ticket seller to allow us to join it, rather than wait an additional hour for the next one.  The woman agreed, and, dutifully, we followed a university student tour leader into the opulent theater.

With M. on Andrassy Avenue, Budapest

            Our solemn young guide repeated the anecdote about the Opera House that we had heard during our bus tour the previous day:  Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria had given the Budapest authorities permission to erect an opera house, provided that it was smaller than the one that he had commissioned for Vienna, the imperial capital.  When the Emperor attended the opera in Budapest for the first and only time, he is reported to have lamented that he should have stipulated, additionally, that the Opera House there not be better than the one in Vienna.  Truly, it was gorgeous, with noble oak paneling, scarlet velvet draperies, grand staircases, and gilded vaulting between Neoclassical ceiling frescoes painted by Hungary's leading Belle Epoque artists.  

The Hungarian State Opera House






]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Andrassy Avenue Budapest cruise Hungarian State Opera House Fri, 03 May 2019 02:45:00 GMT
Current Events 14: Mystery Lunch in the Jewish Quarter              We ate in a ramshackle falafel joint where we could not tell what we had ordered, owing to the girl cashier's limited English and our nearly nonexistent Hungarian.  We unfurled our bills of hundreds and thousands of forints, and matched them to the prices that we read from a chalkboard.  The cashier pantomimed that we had paid for more food than we had put on our plates.  She insisted that we take more from the buffet.  Some tourists regard using foreign currency as a nuisance, but, for me, it is one of the minor pleasures of traveling abroad.  We liked our food, which was fresh and spiced with our sense of triumph at having obtained it as well as the novelty of eating where local folks lunched.

We neglected to sample the signature delicacy.

A narrow street in the Jewish Quarter

Facade of an Art Nouveau apartment building in the Jewish Quarter 


]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Budapest cruise Jewish Quarter Fri, 26 Apr 2019 02:45:00 GMT
Current Events 13: The Synagogue on Kazinczy Street             Near the Great Synagogue on Dohany was a much smaller, Orthodox one on Kazinczy Street.  It was about a century old.  The exterior's Art Nouveau ornamentation evoked The Levant.  It occurred to me that the native Magyars' antipathy towards the Jews might have been exacerbated by the Jewish taste for  architecture in a style similar to that of the Turks, the Hungarians' erstwhile suzerains.  All throughout Budapest there was abundant evidence of the centuries of Ottoman occupation.  It was not unusual to pass a defunct bath house, or hammam, situated atop one of the city's many thermal springs. 

                                                                      Entrance, Kazinczy Street Synagogue

            Inside, the Kazinczy Synagogue was a bijou.  There were stained glass rosettes set into the ceiling.   A semicircular, stained glass window dominated the back wall opposite the bimah, the platform in front of the ark.  The ark was as colorful as an enameled dragonfly brooch, lit by a brace of chandeliers.  There were curious, five-branched electric candelabra on the railing of the women's gallery.  The Orthodox believed that only the menorah that stood in the Holy Temple in Jerusalem could be depicted with seven branches.  Miri, HL and I lingered, taking pictures,  and bade farewell to our group for the afternoon.  We wanted to explore more of the Jewish Quarter for ourselves.  

Hebrew clock, Kazinczy Street Synagogue 


]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Budapest cruise Jewish Quarter Kazinczy Synagogue Fri, 19 Apr 2019 02:45:00 GMT
Current Events 12: The Tree's Testimony          In the synagogue courtyard stands a monument to the Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg.  It acknowledges Wallenberg's courageous efforts to enable Jews to survive the Nazi occupation while he was the Swedish consul in Hungary.  The courtyard is named Wallenberg Memorial Park.  In it there are tributes to other heroic non-Jews, designated Righteous Among the Nations.  No one knows how many Jews they rescued.  Wallenberg alone saved tens of thousands.  The figures are at once staggering, and meaningless. 

            The numbers and letters carved on stone were stark, the legions of victims reduced to abstractions in the sunlit courtyard.  Instead, my eyes sought the gleaming, chromed steel sculpture of a weeping willow tree.  The Hungarian sculptor, Imre Varga, finished the massive piece in 1991.  The tree has seven branches, like a menorah.  Incised on the surface of each lanceolate metal leaf is the name of one of those Jews who perished in the ghetto.  The Tree of Life is common in Jewish iconography, but I have not seen a more arresting treatment of it. 









]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Budapest cruise memorial Righteous Gentile Wallenberg weeping willow metal sculpture Fri, 12 Apr 2019 02:45:00 GMT
Current Events 11: Cries from the Stones           The most unusual feature of the Dohany was not the pipe organ nor the cathedral-like construction, but its graveyard.  Synagogues, unlike churches, do not have cemeteries adjacent to them.  Nor are the illustrious dead buried under the floor, as in a cathedral.  The explanation for the Dohany's cemetery begins with a doleful roll of statistics.  The Nazis imprisoned over 70,000 Jews inside the Budapest ghetto, prior to deporting them to extermination camps.  Of those, 2,000 died in the ghetto, and had to be buried there.  Jews were not permitted to leave the ghetto in order to inter the deceased in one of the cemeteries on the outskirts of Budapest.  Some of the bodies have since been taken elsewhere, but the graveyard remains as a memorial.  That is in addition to the commemorative sculptures and plaques on the premises. 

            Much work, much later, was required to identify those buried at the Dohany.  Before the war was over, the Nazis had killed close to 500,000 Hungarian Jews.  Perhaps the Second World War seems as if it just concluded in Eastern Europe because the bulk of the post-war restorations, especially those of houses of worship, have been completed only since the Iron Curtain lifted.  Or it may be that the blood of my ancestors, like that of Abel slain by Cain, cries out to me from the earth.  That would not have sounded melodramatic when I was in Budapest.

Boxes of pebbles represent those names are known, but whose remains have not been recovered.


]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) cemetery cruise Hungary memorials Nazis Fri, 05 Apr 2019 02:45:00 GMT
Current Events 10: The Phoenix           The Great Synagogue of Budapest opened in 1859, during a period of official toleration.  The Moorish style was in vogue among synagogue builders of that time. We have many photographs of the interior, painted lavishly with symmetrical designs reminiscent of Spain's Alhambra.  The walls and ceilings, and even the undersides of the two levels of women's galleries, are covered in the same intricate geometric pattern based on the Star of David.  Whatever is not painted is gilded, sculpted, or inlaid.

            We had to pass through a secure checkpoint in order to gain admittance to the Dohany complex.  The guards at the gate took their job seriously.  We took seats on the main, that is, the men's floor, and listened to our guide's explanation of the synagogue's features.  Our guide and her family belonged to the Dohany.  The synagogue seats almost 3,000 but it might hold twice that number during the High Holy Days.  The Torah ark was housed  at the end of the central nave where an imposing, church-like altar stood under a dome.  It was flanked by the pipes of a huge organ.  The pipe organ was an anomaly, as there was no instrumental music in traditional European synagogues.  Liszt and Saint-Saens were among the notable performers who had played the original organ in the Dohany's glory days.  The organ had been replaced in the 1990's,  after the end of what our guides persisted in calling "the Communism".

            There were few other tour groups in the vast sanctuary.  In seats near ours were some Jews who were obviously from The States, shepherded by a rabbi from their home congregation.  Otherwise, people entered singly or in pairs.  Even more impressive than the opulent decoration and the size of the edifice was the fact that all of it had been restored.  It was marvelous that it had been built the first time.  That it had been reared from its wreckage, Phoenix-like, seemed nothing short of miraculous.  I was to experience a similar awe throughout Eastern Europe, where bridges and entire districts demolished by bombings have been restored to their former magnificence.

]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) cruise pipe organ synagogue restoration Fri, 29 Mar 2019 02:45:00 GMT
Current Events 9: The Great Synagogue on Dohany Street           The tour of the Jewish Quarter was an optional one, that is, available for an additional fee.  There was no question that HL, Miri and I would pay it to see the second largest synagogue in the world.  Paige had purchased a ticket, but elected to walk around Budapest by herself that morning.  Half of the other passengers went to the Jewish Quarter, though there was only a handful of Jews on the cruise.  Our two buses parked as near as was practicable to the restored Dohany Synagogue.  The streets in the old neighborhood were too cramped for such unwieldy vehicles.  

          Before the Second World War, Budapest's prosperous Jewish community supported more than twenty synagogues, Jewish schools, newspapers, hospitals, and other institutions.  Though it was decimated by the Nazis and the local fascist militia, the Jewish population of Budapest is between 80,000 and 100,000 today.  Hungary has by far the largest number of Jews in Eastern Europe, and they are concentrated in the capital.  The majority of Budapest's pre-war Jews, like their peers in Vienna and Berlin, were progressive.  Most had abandoned Orthodox Judaism in favor of the more liberal Neolog denomination.  The magnificent Dohany Synagogue has a Neolog congregation.  Even the Neolog practices are much stricter than those of Reform or Conservative Jews in North America, as women are segregated from men during Neolog services.

            The synagogues in Budapest are known by the names of their streets instead of their congregations.  We were led from the bus by our local guide, a petite, well-groomed woman of middle age who trotted ahead of us in her patent leather pumps.  East European women of all ages love their fancy shoes.  During the Communist era, sporting frivolous footwear was a symbolic act of resistance against drab Soviet uniformity.  

          The Great Synagogue, as it is known, was in the former ghetto.  Once a thriving, populous district, the ghetto full of apartment houses and shops remained deserted until very recently.  Young entrepreneurs have opened bars and nightclubs in the derelict spaces, and furnished them with discarded items.  These underground establishments, known as "ruin bars", are patronized mostly by Jews, who do not reside near these clubs.  Dohany Street was so narrow and crowded with tourists that we could not back up far enough to get a full view of its Moorish facade, striped in white and terracotta, and crowned with two towers that resembled minarets. 









]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Budapest cruise Dohany Street ghetto Jews Neolog ruin bars synagogue Fri, 22 Mar 2019 02:45:00 GMT
Current Events 8: Between Buda and Pest by Night             My second night aboard ship provided me with my first unique cruising memory, Budapest by Night.  At the beginning of the nocturnal excursion, HL and I stood on the M/S Aria's upper deck.  The ship moved away from its dock in the heart of the city, so smoothly that we remained balanced on our feet.  It sailed under the nearby Chain Bridge, where the road bed and cables blazed with lights.  Then it passed the domed Hungarian Parliament Building that is featured in every panorama of Budapest.  The Parliament was blocks long, and seemed to float in an amber glow.  Plumes of birds  circled the lights trained on the sandcastle-like façade, spiraling high above the towers into the sable sky.  I asked several people what kind of birds they were, but no one, not even the guides, seemed to know.  I assumed that the birds were related to nighthawks.  The tour guides referred to them as Parliament Bats.  Later research, admittedly sketchy, failed to yield a more satisfactory answer.  Please write to enlighten me if you are in possession of this scrap of information. 

The Parliament of Hungary, on the Pest bank of The Danube

The Chain Bridge at the Buda side of The Danube, in front of the old Royal Palace.  Now  the castle complex houses the Hungarian National Gallery and the Budapest Museum of History.

(Top two photographs by H.J. Levy)

We sat in the lounge, at a picture window, as the ship made its way back to the dock.

(Photograph by M. Wolf)




]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Budapest cruise Hungarian Parliament Thu, 21 Jun 2018 10:00:00 GMT
Current Events 7: Budapest's Great Market Hall           The guides procured tram tickets for us so that we could explore some of Budapest on our own, and HL and I were among those who went to the Great Market Hall.  The three-story structure was another fin-de-siècle ornament to the city. Its roof was decorated with Zsolnay tiles in a green and orange diamond pattern.  Inside, the ground floor was filled with rows of stalls selling Tokay and Egri Bikaver, or Bull's Blood, wine, as well as palinka, an incendiary fruit brandy, meats, cheeses, produce, and the inevitable paprika in all its varieties.  The food vendors were quite unfriendly.  One woman ignored me even after I had selected some of her wares, so I left her stall without buying anything and moved to another stall with similar offerings.  I do not require effusiveness from a merchant, but indifference tinged with hostility does not loosen my purse strings. 


          Local residents, not just tourists, were shopping.  The vast market hall was almost empty on that Monday afternoon.  Some of the stalls were closing as HL and I ascended an iron staircase to the second floor, which is the first floor by European count, in search of souvenirs.  I purchased a small porcelain doll in Hungarian folk costume for our granddaughter, from a young man who actually smiled at me.  He was kind enough to encase the doll in bubble wrap.  I was able to buy postcards, too.  I can never have too many postcards.


          Adjacent to the Market Hall is the Art Nouveau-style Liberty Bridge.  It, too, was constructed for the 1896 Millennium World Exhibit.  It rests on two massive pillars, and was designed to look like a chain suspension bridge even though it is a steel-trussed cantilever span.  It is topped by two pairs of eagle-like Turul birds.  The Turul is the ancestor of the seven tribes who settled on the Hungarian plain, according to Magyar mythology.  The bridge's iron girders are painted green.  I thought it the handsomest of the bridges linking Buda to Pest.  Like the others, it was destroyed by Allied bombing, and was reconstructed after World War II. 

Photography by H.J. Levy






]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) art nouveau budapest cruise liberty bridge market palinka paprika shopping turul bird zsolnay tiles Thu, 14 Jun 2018 09:00:00 GMT
Current Events 6: Iron Shoes  

         Our ship was docked very close to Budapest's most original memorial sculpture, Shoes on the Danube Promenade. After a sumptuous lunch on the ship, HL and I walked along the quayside with Miri and Paige to see the monument.  Just beyond it loomed the Hungarian Parliament building.  A Hungarian film director, Can Togay, is credited with the concept for Shoes.  He had the sculptor Gyula Pauer cast sixty pair of iron shoes in men's and women's styles that would have been worn in the mid-1940's.  It was then that the Hungarian militia, the Iron Arrow, had massacred Jews on the bank.  The Jews, who had eluded earlier deportations to concentration camps, were forced to remove their shoes before the militiamen shot them and let their bodies topple backwards into the river.  The sculptor chose iron as his material because it will rust.  Togay and Pauer had hoped that the memorial, as well as the kind of hatred that had led to the Jews' murders, would disappear within a century.  It is safe to say that at least the shoes could be gone.

Rummaging for our Cameras

A Memorial Designed to Rust

Steps Halted on the Promenade


          It was odd to look at the monument in full sunshine, on a golden day of unseasonable warmth.  The weather was hotter than usual for the duration of our sojourn, raising the spirits of the guides and crew members.  Irina, one of the Romanian guides, informed me that such a spell was called Saint Michael's Summer in the Balkans.  That would be the equivalent of our Indian Summer, if it is still permissible to use that term for a week or so of October heat.  People strolled by in shorts and sundresses, snapping pictures of the sad metal shoes.  The worn oxfords and pumps had been rendered so realistically that one could envision them on the feet of their slaughtered owners.  Though I respect the intention of its creators,  I am not sorry that Shoes may endure in images dispersed through cyberspace. 


]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) budapest cruise holocaust memorial hungary Wed, 06 Jun 2018 23:20:46 GMT
The Grey Swan  

In his bestselling book analyzing the 2008 financial crisis, N.N. Taleb designated cataclysmic, unpredictable events as Black Swans.  The evocative term has since passed into the language.  I think that K.’s leukemia qualifies as a Black Swan, for me as well as for her.  A few days ago, I may have encountered what I shall call a Grey Swan, that is, something unexpected and potentially crucial for our family, though lacking in global import.  It happened in the office of K.’s oncologist.  Dr. M. spoke at length about the course of K.’s future treatment, and offered her a choice that we had not known existed.  

Black Swan at Cesis Castle, Latvia

For the first time, the oncologist described a bone marrow transplant in some detail.  Were K. to receive one to cure her leukemia, she would need to be hospitalized for a month.  That would be only after a compatible marrow donor had been found, no simple matter.  And her body would have to accept the donor’s marrow.  K. would have to recuperate for months after her release from the hospital.  That would entail her ingesting numerous medications daily and seeing the doctor at least three times per week.  The danger of infection would be constant, and isolating. 

            There was an alternative, available to K. based on her particular genetic profile.  Dr. M. had discovered that she had several “favorable trisomes”.  These made K. a good candidate for maintenance on oral medications, after an additional fifth round of chemotherapy in the weeks to come.  The survival rate was the same, he asserted, for patients who had undergone the less drastic therapy as for those who had been given marrow transplants.  The oncologist seemed to be addressing HL and me, her parents, rather than K., who was sitting on a treatment table behind him.  Perhaps he realized that we should be the ones to explain this new option to her once we left the office.  At first, I had some difficulty comprehending what he had said.  The idea that K. might be spared the misery of the transplant process made the light in the room go dim, and then brighten almost unbearably.  I must have been holding my breath as I listened to Dr. M. 

            I gathered my wits enough to ask Dr. M. which of the two treatments he would recommend.  He replied that he would abide by the patient’s choice in such cases, since the odds for success were the same.  It took mere moments for K. to decide that she would prefer additional chemotherapy, and would avoid a transplant if possible.   

            Today is the Vernal Equinox, the end of a hard Winter.  Between now and the end of K.’s treatment, there could be many revisions to the medical protocol.  I understand that there are many variables, and few certainties. Swans of any color may appear.  It is conceivable that some could bear bright plumage.   


]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) bone leukemia marrow transplant Tue, 20 Mar 2018 19:47:12 GMT
The Other Anomaly         I think that I know why there was an initial delay in obtaining K.'s diagnosis.  At first, it seemed inexplicable.  Sick as K. was when she was when she was hospitalized in December, she was fully conscious.  She was able to answer questions about her medical history, repeatedly.  Multiple scrub-clad Myrmidons recorded that K. had been treated for leukemia between the ages of two and five.  There was no attempt at obfuscation.  In fact, K. was quite clear about the nature of her childhood affliction.  Yet the oncologists were loath to say that K. was suffering a relapse.  It was as if they had placed an outside limit on the amount of time for that, and it was a small fraction of forty years.

        It was two days before the doctors reached a consensus about the results of the battery of blood and bone marrow tests that K. underwent upon admission.  They decided that she did have ALL, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, after all.  If that qualifies as a pun, consider it intentional, as well as representative of the current tenor of my humor.  K.'s principal oncologist opined that her illness was a new case of the same, or a very similar, type of leukemia as before.  The convolutions of medical taxonomy would do credit to a medieval theologian attempting to measure a pinhead's angel-holding capacity.   

My sketch of K., two years old, in her hospital crib

        The forty year gap that bewildered and excited K.'s doctors may be unprecedented.  At the very least, she could be the subject of an article in a medical journal.  Were I a physician, K. would look to me like a monograph on two legs.   If any of you enterprising readers has discovered another case like hers, please write to me about it.  True human anomalies are rare, so K. is unlikely  be alone in confronting this oddly serial misfortune.  It is I, not K., whose fate could be unique.  Has any other parent had to care for a child with juvenile leukemia and then do it again when her daughter is middle-aged? 

        While I do not equate my sufferings with hers, I am the one who remembers K.'s first course of treatment, the diminutive girl limp in bed, hooked to an I.V., or struggling in vain with nurses and doctors to escape another puncture of her flesh.  Now the images that had almost ceased to haunt me are as vivid as the harshly lit corridors of another hospital in another city, in another century.  I am poised between past and present, in a way that no one else may have been before me.  I can assure you that this is a distinction that I have not sought. 



]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) leukemia medical anomaly Fri, 09 Feb 2018 00:07:52 GMT
Current Events 5: The Humanitarian         Fisherman's Bastion is a Neo-Gothic terrace affording views of The Danube.  Its turrets and archways are ideal backdrops for wedding pictures as well as tourist snapshots.  HL photographed its reflection in the façade of what had been a modern Hilton Hotelopened in 1976.  This Hilton had been the sole Western-style hotel  in Budapest during the Communist regime, the only place where foreign travelers might count on a supply of hot water almost as reliable as the ubiquity of surveillance.  

Fisherman's Bastion, BudapestFisherman's Bastion, Budapest Fisherman's Bastion, Budapest

       Once everyone had returned from buying marzipan at a shop opposite Fisherman's Bastion, our bus driver stopped near Heroes' Square.  Everyone dismounted from the bus to listen to a bewhiskered man in a suit.  Radi introduced him as Tamas Lederer, a professor who had organized his own relief efforts to aid the Syrian, and other, refugees who streamed through Hungary in 2015.  Though most were en route to Germany, where asylum and, presumably, jobs awaited them, some had been stranded in Hungary.  These were the infirm, plus those who had fallen ill or been injured or robbed, so that they found themselves destitute in a strange country.  Professor Lederer had encountered one hapless family and given its members food.  They could communicate their plight because Lederer and they spoke English.  Hungarian is unrelated to other European and Levantine languages, and is impenetrable to all but native speakers and the most dedicated of students. 

        Later, Lederer and his friends had provided blankets and medicine for the transients.  Neither the Hungarian government nor the Red Cross had recognized the refugees encamped in train stations, under bridges, and on the streets.  They were ineligible for any of the very few beds available in official aid centers.  At the height of the crisis, Lederer and his cohorts were helping seven thousand Middle Eastern refugees taking shelter in a single Budapest train station. 

Professor Tamas LedererProfessor Tamas Lederer

Professor Tamas Lederer

        Professor Lederer did not regard his activities as heroic.  He was quite modest, as people whose compassionate acts arise from their innate decency tend to be.  Not all Hungarians are xenophobic.  Yet the country had balked at accepting thirteen hundred refugees, the number that the European Union had decreed that Hungary could absorb.  The right-wing regime in power had filed suit against the European Union, condemning the policy of resettling migrants.  Repeatedly, Prime Minister Orban had rallied Hungarians to protect their Christian culture against Muslim inundation. And his popularity is not waning.  Indeed, it seems to be increasing, darkening the current political scene with the shadows of Hungary's past persecutions of its minorities.

        While Professor Lederer answered questions from our group, HL walked around, shooting pictures.  At a little remove from the bus, HL glimpsed a homeless man, prostrate on the ground under a soiled blanket.  Later that day, we observed a few men with battered suitcases on the riverbank, below the Liberty Bridge, on the steps leading down to The Danube.  The smell of burning wood had attracted my attention.  The men had ignited some broken tree limbs to make a campfire.  Budapest had quite a few people who were not, it seemed, benefiting notably from the end of Communism.

Dreaming of the New EconomyDreaming of the New Economy

Dreaming of the New Economy

Living Rough in BudapestLiving Rough in Budapest Living Rough in Budapest


Photography by H.J. Levy









]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) budapest cruise fisherman's bastion hotel humanitarian hungary refugees xenophobia Tue, 30 Jan 2018 23:30:00 GMT
Current Events 4: Castle Hill, Budapest        There were other tourists milling around the royal palace enclosure, but not masses of them.  Much of Buda Castle now houses the Hungarian National Gallery.  I had hoped to see the works of Hungarian painters, mostly unknown outside Mitteleuropa, but shall have to acquaint myself with them on my next visit to Budapest.  The Secessionist style of Vienna had a nationalistic expression in Nineteenth Century Hungarian painting, after the Habsburgs established the Dual Monarchy in 1867.  The Hungarians have not forgotten that they had shared the hegemony of the Austrian Empire before its defeat in the First World War.  

       With its tall, bone-white spire like the spine of some Gothic leviathan, Saint Matyas Church dominates Castle Hill.  The church has been restored and rebuilt numerous times, and boasts a glorious roof of emerald, turquoise, ochre, and bittersweet orange tiles.  The Zsolnay porcelain tiles are pyrogranitic, produced by a unique process.  The vibrant eosin glazes were invented by the manufacturer.  Zsolnay Ceramics became one of Hungary's largest companies during the last century.  Its tiles crown many of Budapest's public edifices.  

Saint Matyas (Matthias) ChurchSaint Matyas (Matthias) Church

       Saint Matyas (Matthias) Church

The Spire of Saint MatyasThe Spire of Saint Matyas The Spire of Saint Matyas

Zsolnay Roof TilesZsolnay Roof Tiles

Zsolnay Roof Tiles





]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) budapest castle hill cruise hungary st. matthias church tiles zsolnay Thu, 25 Jan 2018 12:30:00 GMT
Current Events 3: Captain and Crew        Peter, the ship's captain, was a Hungarian who looked younger than his years, despite the weight of responsibility for the Aria and all aboard her that he bore.  The Danube is a major shipping channel, crowded with barges as well as pleasure craft.  It has natural hazards, too, so the pilot's duties are constant once the ship is moving.  Though English was only his fourth or fifth language, the captain was aware that his surname, Titz, made Anglophones chuckle.  Hearing it, Miri and I looked at one another and turned away quickly, lest we provoked one another to giggles.  Captain Peter was wise to have mentioned it himself during his first address to the passengers, all of whom came from The States.

Captain Peter of the Amusing SurnameCaptain Peter of the Amusing Surname

Captain Peter of the Amusing Surname

       My fellow passengers failed to pique my interest as much as did the crew.  We had little contact with the sailors and navigators, but soon were acquainted with the rollicking Serbians, Croatians, Bulgarians and Romanians who tended our rooms and served our meals.  They were personable and vivacious, trim in their uniforms.  It was obvious that they had been selected for employment on the basis of personality as well as any professional criteria.  Whether or not it was feigned, their enthusiasm was charming.  My later observations of Eastern European countries confirmed my initial impression that the crew members valued their jobs, which paid more than most positions in their home countries.  They toiled together with few breaks for the five months of the tourist season, and had developed a palpable camaraderie. 

Some Members of the Aria's CrewSome Members of the Aria's Crew

Some Members of the Crew

       My fellow passengers failed to pique my interest as much as did the crew.  We had little contact with the sailors and navigators, but soon were acquainted with the rollicking Serbians, Croatians, Bulgarians and Romanians who tended our rooms and served our meals.  They were personable and vivacious, trim in their uniforms.  It was obvious that they had been selected for employment on the basis of personality as well as any professional criteria.  Whether or not it was feigned, their enthusiasm was charming.  My later observations of Eastern European countries confirmed my initial impression that the crew members valued their jobs, which paid more than most positions in their home countries.  They toiled together with few breaks for the five months of the tourist season, and had developed a palpable camaraderie. 

       In Budapest, Miri and her cycling companion, Paige, reached the ship only slightly before HL and I did.  On our first night aboard, the passengers were divided into four groups of forty, each with its own tour guide who would travel with us on the buses as well as the ship.  Ours was the Green group, organized by a photogenic young woman from Bulgaria, Radostina.  Eventually, you will see quite a few photographs of her, as she became one of HL's favorite models.  Radi, as she encouraged us to call her, had introduced herself to us via E-mail a few weeks before our departure from The States.  She was twenty-nine, and had been married for about a year.  She was a native of Varna who had wed a Serbian man nicknamed Miki.  The couple had no children as yet, and had adopted a dog of no discernible breed that they called Lola.  Lola had some pit bull in her ancestry, I decided towards the end of the trip, when Miki brought their dog to his meeting with his wife, but I am getting ahead of myself.  

Radi, Our Intrepid GuideRadi, Our Intrepid Guide

Radi, Our Intrepid Leader

     In her initial address to her group of forty, Radi divulged that she was exactly a year older than her only sibling, a sister.  She was born in mid-December, and had the Sagittarian enthusiasm and stamina that one would expect.  She needed every iota of both qualities in order to maintain her schedule.  When Radi was not on the ship for two weeks at a time, she operated her own travel agency in Varna.  She had resigned from her Grand Circle Tours job after her marriage, but she had missed the intense interaction that being a tour guide entailed.  So Radi had resumed her career after only a few months at home.  She had studied tourism and foreign languages at her Bulgarian university, and had five years of experience with Grand Circle.  Two of her fellow guides, Irina and Stefan, were Romanian, and the other one, Bojana, was Serbian.  I overheard Radi speaking to each in his or her own language.  When all four were together, they used English as their lingua franca, if you will pardon the expression.







]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) aria cruise danube gct m/s river aria river cruise Thu, 25 Jan 2018 05:18:43 GMT
Current Events 2: The Ship        It was in Budapest that HL and I met our ship, the M/S River Aria.  HL had arranged in advance for a cab to convey us from the airport to the dock on the Danube, which bisects the city into Buda and Pest.  The Aria was anchored below the hilly, Buda side, where the palace and its cathedral are situated.  All of the cities along The Danube seem to have begun as defensible fortresses on the available riparian heights.  Pest developed later, and the Chain Bridge did not join the genteel Buda to the more bourgeois, bustling town on the flat side of the river until 1849.

The Chain Bridge, Budapest, HungaryThe Chain Bridge, Budapest, Hungary

 The Chain Bridge, Budapest

       I am still dreaming about the ship.  I had been concerned that our cabin would induce claustrophobia, but HL and I adjusted to its confines with alacrity.  It was, however, odd for us to sleep in narrow twin beds separated by a table supported by a cylindrical, brass-clad leg.  Though the table's edges were rounded, each of us bumped our legs on it occasionally when we rose, groggily, during the nights.  The ship's lounge, upper deck, and dining room were spacious, by contrast, and immaculate.  Railings and woodwork gleamed, polished by the indefatigable crew.  The windows in the lounge and dining room reached almost from floor to ceiling, affording us views of The Danube throughout the cruise.  In Budapest, the river was green.  Evidently, Strauss was somewhere else along The Danube when he named his famous waltz.  

The Upper Deck of the M/S Aria, with the Chain Bridge in the backgroundThe Upper Deck of the M/S Aria, with the Chain Bridge in the background

Here I am on the Upper Deck of the M/S Aria, with the Chain Bridge in the background.

Photography by H.J. Levy









]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Budapest cruise current events danube river hungary the chain bridge Fri, 19 Jan 2018 09:30:00 GMT
Clapping for Tinkerbell          I was a small girl in New York when my mother took me to a children's matinee performance of Peter Pan.  It was my first time in a theater.  I was enthralled by the actors on the stage, their costumes, their voices, and their general magnificence.  One of the principal characters, however, appeared only as a moving light and a pealing of bells.  That was the fairy, Tinkerbell.

         At one point in the story, Tinkerbell rescued her comrades but was hurt badly in the process.  The circle of light that was the fairy dimmed, and Peter Pan turned to the audience in desperation. Tinkerbell was so weak that, unless all of us helped her, she would die.  We might save her if we clapped to show how much we cared about her.  All of the children complied readily, as did some of the adults.  Yet the applause was insufficient.  Peter Pan admonished us to clap harder.  The fairy's light was a mere glow by then, and we clapped with all our might.  Even the parents who had been aloof at first added their efforts.  Finally, the light brightened, and a bell chimed faintly; Tinkerbell would live.  Throughout the theater, programs fluttered from the collective sigh of relief.  

        My daughter K. was introduced to Barrie's classic opus in its Disney version, as is true of most children in my generation and subsequent ones.  Petite, blond K. had enough of a resemblance to Tinkerbell in the Disney animation to inspire her to dress as the spiteful fairy on more than one Hallowe'en.  Now my daughter has leukemia, incredibly, again.  She survived it as a very young child.  Her forty-third birthday is near, and the disease has dimmed her light.  Clap for Tinkerbell, please, as loudly as you can;  her mother thanks you in advance.



This is one of the pictures that I took in the hospital.  There are more like this, but one will suffice here.

]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) fairy hospital leukemia peter pan tinkerbell Thu, 18 Jan 2018 03:30:00 GMT
Current Events: My Cruise on the Lower Danube River  

        I made my first trip to Europe with Miri, when she and I were still in our teens.  We worked and wheedled to get the funds and, even more crucially, the freedom to wander through Western Europe for an entire Summer.   It was not until fifty years later that Miri and I could travel together again on the Continent. By then, she was a veteran of several river cruises.  I was willing to try one, especially if it were a bargain.  The itinerary that appealed most to my mate, HL, as well as to me, was for a cruise on the Lower Danube leaving late in September 2016.   

                                              The Danube River in Budapest, with the Parliament of Hungary

The Danube River in Budapest, flowing past the Hungarian Parliament 

       Some of our friends were appalled when HL and I told them where we planned to tour.  There had been no need for them to remind us that the Jews of Eastern Europe had been all but annihilated.  Those who escaped the Nazis were persecuted by the Communist regimes that succeeded them.  At best, they were merely forbidden to practice Judaism, owing to the Soviet ban on all religion.  Yet I felt drawn to that part of the world where my ancestors had originated.  I was not just a tourist, but living proof that the Jewish people persisted and prospered.  That felt like a triumph to me.   

Memorial to Victims of the Sho'ah (Holocaust), Novi Sad, SerbiaMemorial to Victims of the Sho'ah (Holocaust), Novi Sad, Serbia

Memorial to Victims of the Sho'ah (Holocaust), Novi Sad, Serbia 


Photography by H.J. Levy








]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) budapest cruise current events danube danube river europe fisherman's bastion gct grand circle travel holocaust hungarian parliament hungary novi sad parliament river cruise shoah Wed, 17 Jan 2018 03:12:22 GMT
The Nightmare Chair         After forty years, I am back in the Nightmare Chair.  My first time was in Long Island Jewish Hospital in August, 1977, when my two-year-old daughter K. was diagnosed with leukemia.  After an initial bout of chemotherapy, her disease went into remission.  The treatment continued for three years, and K. became one of the success stories in the pediatric unit's annals. 

        Four decades passed.  During that time, I could almost forget about my helpless vigils in the Children's Ward.  I was going to write about that period in detail, but I balked at evoking the experience as it retreated into the past.  K. attended school, was graduated from college, married, and gave birth to her own daughter, my only grandchild, now nine.  K. moved from New York to Florida, to Arizona and Texas.  Then, four weeks ago, she sought medical attention for a persistent sinus infection.  Only it was not a sinus infection.  It was leukemia, presumably a relapse of the juvenile form or one much like it.

        That is how I came to be sitting at my daughter's bedside once more, this time on the eleventh floor of a hospital in Dallas.  When they learned of her history, K.'s doctors were incredulous, almost affronted.  When people who have recovered from childhood leukemia suffer a relapse, it is most likely to be in in adolescence, or young adulthood.  No member of K.'s team of veteran oncologists was familiar with a case like hers.  The facile association is with the forty years that the Children of Israel wandered in the wilderness.  And the beginning of K.'s third week in the hospital coincided with the Shabbat when the Torah portion Shemot, or Exodus, is read.   

        K. is stronger than she was when she was admitted to the hospital.   She was discharged a few days ago, well enough to leave but slated to return soon for more chemotherapy.  The wilderness stretching before us is not an uncharted one, but the crossing will not be swift. 


               Some of the photographs are mine, and the credit for the good ones goes to H.J. Levy. 

]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) chemotherapy exodus hospital leukemia relapse Wed, 17 Jan 2018 03:06:27 GMT
The Dinosaur at The Kremlin         I had a double purpose in drawing this year's Hanukkah dinosaur.  It was to accompany my best wishes for the holiday, as well as announce my intention to write a travelogue about our trip to Russia.  Before I begin that, account, I shall regale you with my completed travelogue about The Balkans.  You can find it as a serial here over the next few weeks.  

        My Kremlinosaurus regards the eponymous fortress, its distinctive swallowtail battlements transformed into candle holders for the Festival of Lights.  Now it is between Hanukkah and the New Year of 2018, and I had intended to maintain the festive mood.  I was very excited about publishing my Balkan adventures, illustrated with HL's photographs.  Yet the days turned very dark for me just before the Winter Solstice.  And I am debating with myself about disclosing the source of my grief. 

        I had imagined that I might adopt a jaunty tone in this blog, referring to people by their initials in the manner of a French epistolary novel, describing my impressions of the passing cavalcade in addition to my own foibles.  Now I am reconsidering, wondering if there is any validity in the adage that sharing a sorrow lessens it.  Please help me to illuminate the somber precincts of my mind by sending whatever Light you can to me;  more anon...

]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) balkans cartoon dinosaur hanukkah kremlin moscow russia swallowtail battlements travelogue winter solstice Sun, 31 Dec 2017 03:08:32 GMT
The Roller Coaster        There is only one roller coaster left on The Strip in Las Vegas.  It stands atop the New York, New York hotel-casino.  There used to be one at The Stratosphere, but it has been replaced by several contraptions designed to dangle one over the edge of the roof.   We stayed at New York, New York in late November.  We had never lodged there before, though my daughter and I had ridden the roller coaster together on a previous visit to Las Vegas.  We decided to recreate the experience which we first had in the last millennium.  I do enjoy writing that, a statement as factual as it is outrageous…

       We queued to be strapped into a car and began our ascent.  Suddenly I remembered more than the desire to rise and hurtle down through the bright air.  Then the speed and the suspension, the drops and loops, were all that I knew until time resumed.  I do not know why anybody screamed.  

       And now the facile metaphor suggests itself as Hanukkah nears, the Winter Solstice already some hours past.  The candle lighting lifts spirits that plunge down as darkness gathers once again.  We ride the roller coaster of our moods for more than eight nights.  Then the days lengthen and the descent is over.   

       You may ask why the dinosaurs appear.  I admit to having developed a fondness for my peripatetic reptiles.  I should have missed them at the holiday.  They are always ready for a celebration, as extinction is less than entertaining.  It seems that I am ready, too:  Happy Hanukkah, and enjoy the ride. 






                 21 December 2016

]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) cartoon chanukah dinosaurs hanukkah las vegas moods roller coaster winter solstice Thu, 22 Dec 2016 02:06:37 GMT
The Eastern Wall             There was no mizrach in my childhood home or, more properly, in any of the three New York apartments that my parents rented during my first sixteen years. We hung no special decoration on whichever wall was closest to Jerusalem.  We needed nothing to indicate the direction to face when we prayed, because we did not pray. We were secular Jews whose identity was not based on any form of worship.  Instead of the Torah, we revered the history and culture that our ancestors’ religion had engendered.  I was an adult before I set eyes on a Mizrach.  Now I paint my own, and just finished a mizrach in which I have, in fact, set an eye.


            A mizrach can be an elaborate piece of calligraphy or a simple sheet of paper with an appropriate Biblical verse. In Europe, as in The Americas, Jerusalem lies to the east, so references to sunrise are traditional choices.   “From the rising of the Sun to its setting”, from Psalm 113, is common.   Some include the entire psalm, with the Hebrew lettered to form a seven-branched candelabrum or another significant pattern.  Jewish scribal arts flourished during the centuries when representational art did not, discouraged by the Torah’s prohibition of depicting either animals or people. 


I have incorporated a hamsa, meaning “five”, into my latest mizrach. (Scroll down to see the Hamsa Mizrach. For others, see my East to Jerusalem gallery on this site.)  The protective hand amulet is ubiquitous in the Middle East, and hand prints adorn the earliest human habitations.  

Once, Orthodox Jews and collectors of Judaica were the only ones familiar with the mizrach.  Now, I reinterpret it as a celebration of the daily solar reappearance as well as a reminder of the site where the Holy Temple stood.  Its symbolic power does not come from architectural remains, but from the turning toward the Light.



]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Tue, 05 Jul 2016 20:58:28 GMT
The Persistence of Pluto              Despite my surfeit of stamps, I ordered more first-class domestic postage last month. Views of Our Planets was a series that I could not resist.  In my opinion, the set of eight images is an exemplar of philatelic art.   The eight digitally enhanced planetary portraits fit neatly into a block of stamps.   So it might appear that the postal service did not enter the lists on either side of the controversy about Pluto’s status. 

             The USPS sidestepped the issue of whether or not Pluto is a planet by issuing a separate set of four stamps, two pairs to a sheet, headed Pluto – Explored!  They depict the New Horizons spacecraft and the orb of Pluto.  The latter image brings to mind some of the marbles that I owned when I was a child.  Ostensibly, it is the scientific achievement of exploring beyond the bounds of the Solar System that the stamps celebrate.


                 When astronomers demoted Pluto to a dwarf planet, or planetoid, in 2006, I was miffed.  As Pluto rules Scorpio, my Sign, the judgment felt personal.  Doubtless Mars, Scorpio’s co-regent, inspired that perception.  Worse than affronting those born under the Sign of the Scorpion, the revision denigrated the chthonian elements in Nature and in our psyches.  It was an official obeisance to shallowness and complacency, as far as I was concerned.

                 In retrospect, the alteration in nomenclature was characteristic of the heedless boom time that was to end with a resounding crash.  Now the darkness has reentered minds and hearts, and there is widespread dread of the future. The transforming force of The Lord of the Underworld cannot be gainsaid.  Astrologers, of course, did not misjudge or mislabel Pluto.  Without the Shadow, our vision is partial at best.  As New Horizons flies into the blackness between the stars, Pluto remains the ninth planet, distant and more obscure than our inner depths. 

]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Thu, 23 Jun 2016 20:09:33 GMT
Black Fire The Torah is written in black fire on white fire.

--  Midrash Tanhuma, Genesis 1

           The Jewish holiday of Shavuot just ended.  There is little debate about its origin as an agricultural festival.  One of its names is The Feast of First Fruits.  It is also The Feast of Weeks, starting the count of seven weeks at Passover.  It is another of the holiday’s names, however, that my painting illustrates: The Giving of the Law (Torah).  There is a vivid verbal description of the event in the Book of Exodus.  I based Revelation at Sinai on the text, and lettered the relevant verses as lava flowing from the space between the tablets that Moses brought from the mountaintop.  (It is the first picture in The Art of the Kabbalah gallery)


No gift was ever bestowed with more fanfare. Storm, earthquake and volcanic eruption combined with a violence that set the standard for all future spectacles.  Mount Sinai quaked and smoked.  Flames spurted from its summit, and trumpets blared.  The sacred words were in the thunder, and, simultaneously, in a whisper within the ear of every person present.    


I chose to paint on black paper, forming the Hebrew characters in white.  If you look towards the upper edges of the scene, you can discern the plumes of black fire shining beyond the pale curls of smoke.  And the trailing strands beneath the purplish bulk of the mountain are its roots. I envisioned Mount Sinai levitating from the desert floor, making space for all the words to descend.  


Revelation at Sinai

                                                                                            Revelation at Sinai

                                                                  Photograph by H.J. Levy, Star Arts Photography

]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Tue, 14 Jun 2016 18:06:11 GMT
Retrieving Wonder: On Being a Tourist in Town              I have wearied my friends with my complaints about my current environment, and for that I apologize.   Those unacquainted with my reasons for relocating to such an uncongenial place need not read about them here.  They may not even be relevant any longer, as I have been at my current address for several years.  What has not changed is the benighted sociopolitical climate or the violence of the weather in North Texas.   The most recent series of storms, the same one that is causing horrendous floods in the Brazos River basin, threatened to keep us indoors for much of our guests’ sojourn last week.  Not for the first time, I rejoiced in the inaccuracy of the forecast.  We were spared daily deluges, so my usual co-conspirator and I were able to acquit ourselves decently as hosts.

Showing Dallas’ attractions to our visitors reminded me of the cultural advantages that the city has to offer.  Within a period of ten days, I attended a concert by Itzhak Perlman and Emanuel Ax in the Winspear Opera House and viewed new exhibits in two museums in the Arts District.  On display at the Crow Collection of Asian Art were wooden Tibetan book covers, centuries old, carved, lacquered and gilded.



 This is part of the permanent jade collection, with a side view of the fountain near The Crow’s entrance.


At The Dallas Museum of Art was the Irving Penn retrospective, Beyond Beauty.   Many of the images were memorable, including "The Tarot Reader", shot in 1949. 


              In an isolated corner in front of the DMA’s conservation department stands The Wittgenstein Vitrine.  Once, it graced the parlor of a Viennese industrialist, the father of one of my favorite philosophers.  First shown in 1908, the vitrine is an extravagant example of the Viennese Workshop (Weiner Werkstatte) style.  It had fallen into disrepair before the DMA acquired it and restored its former luster as well as a missing pane of curved glass.  A guard informed us that the vitrine was going to be moved.  It merits a more prominent placement, which I hope that it receives.




I have always stood in awe of the camera.

  I recognize it for the instrument it is, part Stradivarius, part scalpel.

--    Irving  Penn


Photographs by H.J. Levy , Star Arts Photography 


]]> (Star Arts by Tamar) Tue, 07 Jun 2016 20:16:38 GMT